Cold War – Triad NTR http://triadntr.net/ Sun, 19 Sep 2021 04:55:48 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8.1 https://triadntr.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/icon-3-150x150.png Cold War – Triad NTR http://triadntr.net/ 32 32 The Australian pact for the first time in the US-China Cold War https://triadntr.net/the-australian-pact-for-the-first-time-in-the-us-china-cold-war/ Sun, 19 Sep 2021 04:55:48 +0000 https://triadntr.net/the-australian-pact-for-the-first-time-in-the-us-china-cold-war/ The pact between the United States and Australia, known as the Aukus, will allow Australia to receive the technology needed to build nuclear-powered submarines. The move thwarted a multibillion-dollar deal that France had signed with Australia. Image Credit: Ador Bustamante / Gulf News During the days of Donald Trump’s erratic reign, it was quite normal […]]]>

The pact between the United States and Australia, known as the Aukus, will allow Australia to receive the technology needed to build nuclear-powered submarines. The move thwarted a multibillion-dollar deal that France had signed with Australia.
Image Credit: Ador Bustamante / Gulf News

During the days of Donald Trump’s erratic reign, it was quite normal to see a crisis in relations with the traditional allies of the United States in Europe day after day. The former president adopted a strict “America First” policy that not only angered Washington allies, but also raised questions about America’s leading role in a multilateral world. theoretically more globalized.

Joe Biden was supposed to be different. He went to the White House on the slogan of multilaterism and “restoring American leadership” on the world stage. The relationship with Europe, he said, has been strong for decades and will remain a fundamental part of US foreign policy.

However, it wasn’t long before Biden stabbed France in the back. “We have a crisis,” a French official said at a press briefing on Friday. Here is what happened.

Australia was supposed to buy $ 90 billion worth of military submarines from France – 12 of them – to boost its capabilities in an increasingly tense area. The agreement was signed in 2016. The two countries, usually good friends, have met regularly to finalize the contract and the technical specification.

The last meeting took place on Wednesday, September 15, just hours before the Australians publicly announced that they were canceling the French deal in favor of a new deal on US nuclear-powered submarines.

The French were shocked. They were “betrayed” by Australia, according to Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drianm who had “optimistic” talks two weeks ago with Australian officials on the progress of the agreement. On Friday, France angrily took the unprecedented step of recalling its ambassadors to the United States and Australia “for consultations”.

France has not taken this step, even at the lowest of its relations with the United States during Trump’s time, when the former president frequently mocked French leader Emmanuel Macron and other European leaders.

French Minister Le Drian said the recall of the emissaries was “justified by the exceptional gravity of the announcements” made by Australia and the United States of the cancellation of the agreement on French submarines.

A French diplomat told The Associated Press that all of this raises “a strategic question about the very nature of relations between Europe and the United States over the Indo-Pacific strategy”.

The real show

A crisis? Certainly. However, French anger is not the main story. The cancellation of the deal is actually a spectacle that has somewhat overshadowed the real spectacle – the Indo-Pacific Security Partnership Pact signed by the United States, Britain and Australia on Wednesday. . The agreement on American submarines, which led to the cancellation of the French contract, is part of the new strategic alliance. It is an important part, but it is not the essential.

Biden had opposed Trump’s “America First” policy as isolationist, reckless and offensive to traditional allies. However, he got off on the wrong foot economically with his plan to increase the interest rate and phase out financial incentives linked to the impact of Covid-19.

These decisions have resulted in slower growth and uncertainty about the economic recovery that began in the final months of the Trump presidency. The debacle in Afghanistan has fueled criticism that the Biden administration is naive and weak despite the so-called dream team of foreign policy experts the president has assembled in his cabinet.

And that is why the history of Australia matters. In an attempt to prove his badass credentials, Biden takes on the obvious target – China. And US measures against China usher in a cold war, Beijing warned. The main objective of the new security pact is to deal with the growing Chinese influence in this region.

Over the past two decades, US political experts have warned of heightened tension between the United States and Russia that could lead to a new Cold War. Until recently, few people expected the Cold War to actually be waged against the future great world power, China.

Trump has attempted to slow China’s economic and technological advances by imposing non-literal sanctions on who and who in the Chinese tech industry. He started what is now known as the US-China trade war.

In response to what Trump described as “China’s unjust economic policies,” the United States in 2018 launched a series of punitive actions that included new tariffs, restrictions on China’s access to American goods technology, restrictions on US investment in the Chinese technology industry.

Biden’s victory in the 2020 election raised hopes in the American business community that Trump’s anti-China policies would be abandoned and that the new administration would restore trade relations with Beijing.

However, what started as a trade war developed under a new president desperate to improve his image in a cold war, “a battle between the usefulness of democracies in the 21st century and autocracies” in the words of the president. Biden. And the first blow in this battle was the security pact with the UK and Australia.

Biden calls the US nuclear submarine pact and deal “the biggest strategic step Australia has taken in generations.” China called it “the old cold war mentality”.

The new cold war has officially started. France, for its part, has just been caught between two fires.


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The real story of Greville Wynne and the Cold War https://triadntr.net/the-real-story-of-greville-wynne-and-the-cold-war/ Sat, 18 Sep 2021 18:20:00 +0000 https://triadntr.net/the-real-story-of-greville-wynne-and-the-cold-war/ The historical drama of the cold war The mail is based on the true story of Greville Wynne, a British businessman who became an unlikely MI6 agent in the early 1960s. The film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2020 and began to be broadcast aired on Amazon Prime Video in 2021 after […]]]>

The historical drama of the cold war The mail is based on the true story of Greville Wynne, a British businessman who became an unlikely MI6 agent in the early 1960s. The film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2020 and began to be broadcast aired on Amazon Prime Video in 2021 after a short theatrical release. Inspired by the extraordinary efforts of an ordinary man, Tom O’Connor wrote the screenplay. Directed by Dominic Cooke, The mail stars Benedict Cumberbatch (Dr strange) as Greville Wynne and Merab Ninidze as Soviet intelligence officer Oleg Penkovsky.

The film begins in the early 1960s, when Penkovsky, a senior member of the Soviet agency GRU, uses American students to convey a message to the United States about nuclear operations in the Soviet Union. In the letter, he also shares his desire to leave the Soviet Union and has agreed to pass on top secret government information. Starting with his recruitment to join MI6, The mail follows Greville Wynne as he forms an unlikely friendship with Penkovsky and becomes an unexpected spy for British and American intelligence agencies.


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By passing on the information stolen by Penkovsky, the two men played a role in deterring all-out nuclear war. How Penkovsky and Wynne did it, how they were captured and what happened to them next is central to The mail. Taking a look at this moment in Cold War era history, the film does a good job of staying historically accurate with a few minor tweaks for dramatic effect. But by condensing the content into a two-hour feature film, a lot of the true story details are also left out. Here’s a look at the information missing from the film about how this historic enterprise unfolded, and how a Soviet intelligence officer and average British citizen managed to help stop a nuclear war.

History of the Cold War and the Cuban Missile Crisis

Called the Cuban Missile Crisis in the United States, this actual confrontation between the United States and the Soviets is considered the closest the two countries could have potentially unleashed World War III during the Cold War era. Although it was one of the most significant events of the time, the entire incident unfolded over less than five years. While the decades-long period of geopolitical tension between the two countries and their respective allies lasted much longer, from the end of World War II until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991.

The real recruiting Greville Wynne & MI6

The Courier Benedict Cumberbatch

In the film, Greville Wynne is recruited by MI6 agent Dickie Franks (Angus Wright) and CIA’s Emily Donovan (played by The wonderful Mrs. Maisel star, Rachel Brosnahan). Dickie Franks is based on a real person and he really recruited Wynne as a spy. According to Smithsonian magazine, in November 1960, Franks recruited Wynne at what he thought was a business dinner – much like the scene depicted in The mail. Wynne was at the time an industrial sales consultant and Mi-6 recruited him due to his previous trips to countries controlled by the Soviet Union, which allowed him to cover his mission in Moscow perfectly. The film closely follows the true story from there, with Wynne befriending Penkovsky, who photographs Soviet military documents, which Wynne passes on to his master, Franks.

While The mail’s Dickie Franks was based on a real person, according to United States today, CIA agent Emily Donovan was created as a composite character inspired by several real people involved in the intelligence operation. Including Janet Chisholm, who was the wife of a British officer stationed in Moscow who allegedly served as one of Penkovsky’s managers there. Unlike the film, MI6 did not immediately forward the information received from Penkovsky to the CIA, but when they did, the evidence turned out to be vital.

Related: Where To Find Benedict Cumberbatch’s Van Gogh Online (Netflix, Hulu, Prime)

What happened to Oleg Penkovsky

Oleg Penkovsky was arrested in October 1962. After Penkovsky and Wynne were captured by the KGB, which happened very similar to how their capture is depicted in the film, the GRU lieutenant colonel been convicted of treason and sentenced to death by firing squad. This is the scenario described in The mail, and that generally accepted by historians. However, how Penkovsky died remains a matter of debate for some. In Wynne’s memoir written after his release, he claims that Penkovsky committed suicide. In another much darker version of the story told in the 1994 non-fiction book “Spies: The Secret Agents Who Changed the Course of History”, he was reportedly burned alive by cremation – a method the KGB allegedly reserved. to those considered to be the “worst traitors of the Soviet Union”.

At the time, the United Kingdom and the United States believed that the Soviet Union’s stockpile of missiles was much larger than the actual number in their nuclear arsenal. This was one of the biggest secrets revealed by information provided by Penkovsky which is not specified in the film. Debunking this rumor proved that the Soviets were not ready for war. This information, along with intelligence provided by Penkovsky on the location of Cuban missile sites, gave President Kennedy what he needed to take control of the Cuban missile problem.

What happened to Greville Wynne

After spending a year and a half in a Soviet prison, the British government negotiated Wynne’s release and he returned to England in poor health as the film describes. What isn’t covered in the film is what happened next: While Wynne was truly the unsung hero portrayed in the film, he was also known to have been a pathological liar who embellished – and sometimes fabricated – information about his working time with MI6. This is well documented in the two memoirs Wynne wrote after his release. In one example, he claims to have visited the White House where he was reportedly met by President John F. Kennedy, who personally thanked Wynne for his services. Historians point to several reasons why this could not have happened, namely that there were no jets that could fly to Washington DC and return within the time frame where Wynne claims the trip has taken place. However, given what Wynne went through – and what he sacrificed in the hopes of saving lives – it makes sense that the film chose not to dwell on these aspects of Wynne’s life.

The mail ends on an uplifting note, with a statement about how Wynne returned to her business career and thrived in the years following her arrest. This is somewhat true, but his time in prison affected him both physically and psychologically, having a long-term impact on Wynne’s health. In 1990, he died of throat cancer at the age of 70.

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Defense spending to compete with the eruption of the Cold War https://triadntr.net/defense-spending-to-compete-with-the-eruption-of-the-cold-war/ Fri, 17 Sep 2021 06:48:00 +0000 https://triadntr.net/defense-spending-to-compete-with-the-eruption-of-the-cold-war/ “The trajectory will continue to increase,” Dr. Hellyer said. “Australia is closing in on that 2½ percent gap recorded in the colder parts of Cold War spending.” U.S. ships, bombers, satellites and military base personnel will all have a significantly increased presence across Australia in a new era of cooperation, under a partnership agreement announced […]]]>

“The trajectory will continue to increase,” Dr. Hellyer said. “Australia is closing in on that 2½ percent gap recorded in the colder parts of Cold War spending.”

U.S. ships, bombers, satellites and military base personnel will all have a significantly increased presence across Australia in a new era of cooperation, under a partnership agreement announced by Defense Minister Peter Dutton and Foreign Secretary Marise Payne in Washington on Friday.

Australian Defense Minister Peter Dutton and US Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin at the Pentagon in Washington.

According to the well-respected Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, US military spending was 3.5% of GDP in 2020, Russia 4.3% and the UK 2.2%.

China’s defense spending was 1.7 percent of GDP, or about $ 350 billion a year, and it has grown rapidly in dollar terms, along with its booming economy.

Prime Minister Scott Morrison said China has made “massive investments in its military” and is increasing defense spending to protect Australia’s national interests.

“What I do know is Australia’s defense spending, as a percentage of GDP, will continue to rise because it’s not just about submarines,” Morrison said.

“It’s a whole range of other capabilities. We simply want to ensure that, throughout the region, the free movement of goods and services, maritime traffic and air traffic can be ensured and that the rule of law applies in international waters. “

Mr Morrison declined to set a target or cap on defense spending, saying the government would spend as much as needed to keep Australians safe.

The government’s decision to prioritize defense spending will bolster structural budget deficits for years to come, even after the economy rebounds from the economic downturn from COVID-19.

IFM Investors economist Alex Joiner said the changing geopolitical situation in the region would necessarily put structural pressure on the budget.

“We’re going to have to afford to spend more on defense, so we need a strong budget in other areas through a better tax system and more efficient spending elsewhere,” said Dr Joiner.

In government, Treasurer Josh Frydenberg and Finance Minister Simon Birmingham are also backing a new era of large defense spending as insurance against China and betting on a stronger economy to fund growing spending.

Frydenberg also rejected several Chinese-backed foreign investments in construction, gas pipeline and beverage manufacturing.

In addition to the $ 2.4 billion already spent on French submarines, the government faces several hundred million dollars in compensation for killing the project.

The contract was due to expire this month and contains a € 90 million ($ 145 million) breach fee to terminate the project. It is understood that the Commonwealth Government is also required to pay Naval Group Australia liquidation costs, such as breach of leases and employee rights.

Mr Birmingham said negotiations with Naval Group would settle the amount the government would pay to exit the contract.

The government will also have to compensate Lockheed Martin Australia, which provided the combat system. However, Lockheed Martin is already a major supplier to the Navy and has less incentive to dig during negotiations.

Mr Morrison denied that the $ 2.4 billion already spent on the 12 Attack-class submarines was a waste, arguing that it was an “investment” in building the future capabilities of the submarine technology, including marine engineering skills.

US Naval War College professor Jonathan Caverley said the US nuclear submarine industrial base was at full capacity and it would be “very expensive” to build it in another shipyard.

In the United States, it costs around $ 3 billion ($ 4.1 billion) to build a Virginia-class nuclear submarine, even with a significant economy of scale advantage.

The rival option, the British Astute class, is cheaper at £ 1.4bn ($ 2.6bn).

After the fall of the Berlin Wall, Australia and many countries enjoyed a “peace dividend” and cut defense spending as a share of the economy under the Howard and Rudd-Gillard governments.

Australia’s defense spending recently rose to around 2.2 percent of GDP, after falling to 1.6 percent under Labor – the lowest level since before World War II.

This is still well below the 4 percent of GDP affected at the height of the Korean and Vietnam wars.

In the short term, the cancellation of French submarines will free up defense cash flow due to delays in building nuclear submarines.

But in the longer term, from around the end of this decade, the acquisition of nuclear submarines will cost more than previously budgeted.

“The crisis will likely come early in the next decade when they order nuclear reactors for the first ships and recruit personnel,” Hellyer said.

The cost of military equipment is increasing at a faster rate than inflation.


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“Obsolete zero-sum cold war mentality” https://triadntr.net/obsolete-zero-sum-cold-war-mentality/ Fri, 17 Sep 2021 01:43:12 +0000 https://triadntr.net/obsolete-zero-sum-cold-war-mentality/ Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian criticized a new defense pact announced between the Australian, US and UK governments at a press conference Thursday. “Nuclear submarine cooperation between the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia has seriously undermined regional peace and stability, intensified the arms race and undermined international non-proliferation efforts,” Zhao said. in […]]]>

Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian criticized a new defense pact announced between the Australian, US and UK governments at a press conference Thursday.

“Nuclear submarine cooperation between the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia has seriously undermined regional peace and stability, intensified the arms race and undermined international non-proliferation efforts,” Zhao said. in response to a question from AFP.

“The countries concerned should abandon the obsolete zero-sum cold war mentality and narrow-minded geopolitical perception,” Zhao added. “Otherwise, they’ll just end up shooting themselves in the foot. “

Zhao’s comments came after the United States announced it would help Australia build nuclear-powered submarines, using technology never shared with the United Kingdom. Australia will not seek nuclear weapons under the deal; the submarines will be equipped with conventional weapons.

The French government also tore up the deal because Australia simultaneously withdrew from a $ 66 billion deal to buy French non-nuclear submarines.

The “brutal, unilateral and unpredictable decision” brought back memories of relations with the Trump administration, French Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian told Franceinfo in comments translated by the New York Times. “It doesn’t happen between allies.

The French Embassy in Washington issued its own statement condemning the move. In addition, France canceled a gala scheduled for Friday at the embassy to commemorate the 240th anniversary of the Battle of the Caps, when the French and British navies fought in Chesapeake Bay during the War of Independence.

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Cold War Echoes as Aukus Alliance Focuses on China’s Deterrence | China https://triadntr.net/cold-war-echoes-as-aukus-alliance-focuses-on-chinas-deterrence-china/ Thu, 16 Sep 2021 18:26:00 +0000 https://triadntr.net/cold-war-echoes-as-aukus-alliance-focuses-on-chinas-deterrence-china/ For those studying Cold War history, Washington’s new initiative with London and Canberra – known by its acronym “Aukus” – has connotations of the name UKUSA, an intelligence-sharing agreement signed 75 years ago now. more commonly known as the Five Eye Partnership. When the full seven-page text of the UKUSA deal was finally published in […]]]>

For those studying Cold War history, Washington’s new initiative with London and Canberra – known by its acronym “Aukus” – has connotations of the name UKUSA, an intelligence-sharing agreement signed 75 years ago now. more commonly known as the Five Eye Partnership.

When the full seven-page text of the UKUSA deal was finally published in June 2010, Time magazine called it one of the most important documents of the Cold War which “reveals one of the foundations of the special relationship that the UK and US always cherish. “

But unlike the UKUSA agreement dating from the Cold War, the Aukus alliance has a strong security and technological dimension. It comes at a time when many Western capitals are recalibrating their relations with China. Until recent years, Australia, for example, had insisted on a “hedging” strategy to navigate changing regional dynamics. At one point, Canberra pulled out of Quad, a strategic alliance with Japan, the United States, and India.

“It’s about investing in our greatest source of strength, our alliances, and updating them to better deal with the threats of today and tomorrow,” Joe Biden said Wednesday evening. “It’s about connecting America’s existing allies and partners in new ways.”

Still, he left little doubt about the power Aukus was meant to aim for. After his joint nine-minute announcement with Scott Morrison and Boris Johnson, reporters asked, “Did you tell President Xi [Xinping] when you spoke to her last week? and: “Is this all about China?” “

Joe Biden is joined by Boris Johnson for Wednesday’s announcement. Photograph: REX / Shutterstock

“From Beijing’s perspective, this trilateral initiative is a new US-led coalition emerging,” said Dali Yang, a Chinese foreign policy expert at the University of Chicago.

“Over the past two years, there have been a lot of efforts by the Chinese diplomatic community to try to prevent something like this from happening,” Yang said. “Although in the meantime, Beijing has also tried to strengthen its ties with other countries, in the hope that they can remain as neutral as possible regarding the agreements as such.”

Whether the Aukus initiative will be successful in the long term remains a question. After all, the four-year Trump presidency has shown American partners how multilateral initiatives can collapse overnight with a changing of the guard in Washington.

But if this move survives, it could show the shape of a possible future Indo-Pacific security strategy as Biden unites allies and partners to tackle “21st century threats,” said Yuka Kobayashi of the School of Oriental and African Studies in London.

“At first glance, it looks like a traditional security partnership, but if you look at the other areas mentioned – cyber and AI [artificial intelligence], for example, they reflect the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative. It covers more than security and it’s about deterrence, ”Kobayashi said.

A Chinese two-track strategy?

“With the withdrawal of the United States from Afghanistan, we see Washington reorganizing its ‘pivot to Asia’. Likewise, the UK has strengthened its identity as ‘Global Britain’, with more ambitious goals with the Indo-Pacific tilt unveiled in this year’s Integrated Review. “

Ahead of Wednesday’s announcement, senior US officials told reporters the initiative was aimed at “maintaining and improving deterrence.” It’s a narrative about China taking shape these days: it’s not just about confrontation, but more deterrence than cooperation.

Some say that as the COP26 climate change conference approaches, the United States and the United Kingdom in particular would like to bring China to their side to show that a relationship that is both competitive and cooperative is viable in the practice.

“But the key question is how far Biden can go with this two-track strategy, acting more competitively in many ways, while signaling to Beijing that he still wants to discuss and collaborate on other issues.” said Neysun Mahboubi, an expert on China at the University of Pennsylvania. “Will China be interested in the collaborative dimensions of this two-track strategy? “

Days before Wednesday’s announcement, Biden and Xi made their first phone call in seven months. According to the Financial Times, the US president offered a face-to-face meeting, but the Chinese leader did not respond.

Kobayashi believes Xi’s low-key response shows the limits of a two-track strategy when approaching China. “Washington and its allies need to make sure they have a coherent strategy. They must distinguish between global issues such as climate change, which require global cooperation, including China, and security and defense issues as addressed in the Aukus alliance, but also ensure that they have a consistent message.

She added, “China is the number one emitter of greenhouse gas emissions, so any meaningful response to the climate crisis requires China. “


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China sees ‘cold war mentality’ in US, UK and Australian pact https://triadntr.net/china-sees-cold-war-mentality-in-us-uk-and-australian-pact/ Thu, 16 Sep 2021 07:38:09 +0000 https://triadntr.net/china-sees-cold-war-mentality-in-us-uk-and-australian-pact/ China said on Wednesday that countries should “get rid of their cold war mentality” as it opposes the creation of a pact between the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. The security partnership will involve large-scale projects on cyber warfare, artificial intelligence and quantum computing, and is expected to counter China’s influence in global […]]]>

China said on Wednesday that countries should “get rid of their cold war mentality” as it opposes the creation of a pact between the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia.

The security partnership will involve large-scale projects on cyber warfare, artificial intelligence and quantum computing, and is expected to counter China’s influence in global politics.

Liu Pengyu, spokesman for the Chinese Embassy in Washington DC, said countries “should not build exclusion blocks targeting or harming the interests of third parties” and added that they “should get rid of their Cold War mentality and their ideological prejudices “.

US President Joe Biden announced the AUKUS alliance on Wednesday at a joint virtual event with Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison and Britain’s Boris Johnson. The pact will be formally signed at the White House next week at the Quad summit.

China criticized the Quad summit last week and said “exclusive” regional cooperation cliques formed to target a third country “would not be popular and have no future.” The very first face-to-face meeting of the Quad countries – US, Australia, India and Japan – is scheduled for September 24.

The AUKUS alliance will also allow Australia to acquire nuclear-powered submarines, in a bid to counter China’s growing aggression from the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean. With the deal, Australia would become the seventh country, after the United States, Russia, Britain, China, France and India, to acquire nuclear submarines.

The Scott Morrison government has scrapped a $ 90 billion submarine deal with France and entered into this new deal with the US and UK to boost its submarine defense capabilities.

Mr Morrison said plans for the submarines would be worked out over the next 18 months and the ships would be built in Adelaide, but Australia would not deploy nuclear weapons. “We will continue to meet all of our nuclear non-proliferation obligations,” he said.

Mr Biden said the initiative aims to ensure that “each of us has the most modern capabilities we need to maneuver and defend against rapidly evolving threats.”

“Today we are taking another historic step to deepen and formalize the cooperation between our three nations, as we all recognize the imperative to ensure long-term peace and stability in the Indo-Pacific region,” added Mr. Biden.

Mr Johnson said: “This partnership will become increasingly vital in defending our interests in the Indo-Pacific region and, by extension, protecting our people at home.”

The alliance comes amid China’s counter-provocation to the Biden administration after it sought to rebuild security policies for the Indio-Pacific region. Since starting his presidency, Biden has sought a more unified voice from regional allies against the Asian giant. Beijing has been showing off its muscles in the Indian Ocean since early January, sparking a reaction from other major players in the region such as India.

According to a Pentagon report, China has “the largest navy in the world, with an overall combat force of around 350 ships and submarines, including more than 130 large surface combatants.”

Mr Biden reportedly spoke on the phone with Chinese President Xi Jinping last week after an unsuccessful high-level engagement between key advisers to the two leaders. During the 90-minute call, Xi expressed concern that the US policy towards China has caused “serious difficulties” in relations, The Xinhua News Agency reported.

Additional contributions from agencies


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PAT BUCHANAN: Is democracy versus autocracy the new cold war? | Chroniclers https://triadntr.net/pat-buchanan-is-democracy-versus-autocracy-the-new-cold-war-chroniclers/ Sun, 12 Sep 2021 02:30:00 +0000 https://triadntr.net/pat-buchanan-is-democracy-versus-autocracy-the-new-cold-war-chroniclers/ “He might be an SOB, but he’s our SOB.” So said President Franklin D. Roosevelt of Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza, and how very American. For, from its earliest days, America came to an understanding with the autocrats when the national interest demanded it. George Washington danced a jig in 1778 when he learned that our […]]]>

“He might be an SOB, but he’s our SOB.”

So said President Franklin D. Roosevelt of Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza, and how very American. For, from its earliest days, America came to an understanding with the autocrats when the national interest demanded it.






George Washington danced a jig in 1778 when he learned that our diplomats had made an alliance with the King of France Louis XVI. The alliance, he knew, would be essential to an American victory.

In April 1917, the United States went to war “to make the world safe for democracy” in collusion with four of the world’s greatest empires: the British, French, Russian and Japanese. All four annexed new colonial lands and peoples from our decisive victory for democracy.

During World War II, we provided massive military aid to Joseph Stalin’s USSR, who used it to crush, conquer and communitarize half of Europe.

Antonio Salazar, dictator of Portugal, was a founding member of NATO. During the Cold War, we allied ourselves with autocrats Syngman Rhee from South Korea, Ferdinand Marcos from the Philippines, the Shah from Iran and General Augusto Pinochet from Chile. NATO’s second largest army is under the autocratic regime of Turkish President Recep Erdogan.

Our main allies in the Arab world are Egyptian General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, who overthrew a democratically elected president, Mohamed Morsi, and the various kings, princes, sultans and emirs along the Persian Gulf.


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Headlines: The Cold War Murder Mystery | The titles of the story https://triadntr.net/headlines-the-cold-war-murder-mystery-the-titles-of-the-story/ Sat, 11 Sep 2021 10:00:00 +0000 https://triadntr.net/headlines-the-cold-war-murder-mystery-the-titles-of-the-story/ “If you want to understand this strange and rather sad story, you must have at least a sense of the background – the sad devastated city of Vienna divided into zones between the four powers: the Russian, British, American and French zones. “ “The Third Man”, by Graham Greene Samuel Gearhart never backed down from […]]]>

“If you want to understand this strange and rather sad story, you must have at least a sense of the background – the sad devastated city of Vienna divided into zones between the four powers: the Russian, British, American and French zones. “

“The Third Man”, by Graham Greene

Samuel Gearhart never backed down from a fight. By 1947, this 23-year-old ex-Marine, 5’3 “from Allentown, now serving with the US Army in the occupation of Austria, had seen some of the toughest fighting World War II had to deal with. Honestly demobilized from the Marines, he must have thought the military was where he wanted to be. But it wasn’t on a coral atoll in the Pacific but on the floor of a cold hotel lobby in Vienna where his brief life ended.Beat to death by Stephen Ingrin, described as a “Russian correspondent”, his act was called by the US Provost Marshal an outright murder.

Yet, as far as is known, Ingrin was never tried for it and the US government, after some minor protests, never demanded that the Soviets fire Ingrin for trial. When the State Department was asked about it, it referred the matter to the War Department. Some today might regard Gearhart as the first casualty of the Cold War.

The matter was recently brought to the attention of WFMZ thanks to Gary Milligan of Sunbury, Ohio. Milligan’s curiosity for Gearhart began when he read “The Guadalcanal Diary,” an account of the early weeks of this Battle of the Pacific Islands by World War II correspondent Richard Tregaskis, which is still considered a classic today. military history. Here’s how he described his meeting with Gearhart:

“As we spoke, a chubby little boy with a shaved head stood at the edge of our circle. “There is the youngest on the ship,” said one of the Marines. The boy told me that he was only seventeen and his name was Sam Gearhart, and that he was from Allentown, PA. “You must have signed up before you were seventeen, Sam,” I said. “I did it,” he replied. “But they can’t kick me out now. “

A search of the Allentown Town Directory for the 1920s to 1940s shows a Benjamin Gearhart and his wife, Florence, who were most likely Gearhart’s parents. Samuel is known from cemetery records that Samuel was born on September 14, 1924. According to Morning Call, he was later a student at Allentown High School, a Call-Chronicle newspaper carrier and a member of a boy gang. Scottish sponsored by St. John’s Reformed Church.

Subsequent directories suggest that Sam Gearhart’s parents may have gone their separate ways. In 1940, the directory shows Florence working as a nurse at the public hospital. Later, in 1946, she married Stanley Grim. The 1947 Morning Call article on Sam Gearhart’s death also confirms this. After that, Gearhart disappeared from press accounts until 1947. Unlike many others whose enlistment was at least mentioned in the newspaper, Gearhart was not, probably because he was a minor.

Milligan notes that Gearhart as a member of the famed 1st Marine Division fought and survived in some of the Marine Corps’ bloodiest battles such as Guadalcanal, Peleliu, and Okinawa. The article about his death states that he won his marksman medal with bars for handing out grenades and bayonets during his training in New River. Gearhart was discharged from the Marines in late 1945 and in January 1946 enlisted in the military. There is no explanation given in the newspaper article about his death as to why Gearhart wanted to return to military life. Perhaps the most understandable is that he loved this life and wanted to stay there.

How long Gearhart had been in Vienna and what duties he performed there are not stated in the newspaper article. What we do know is that at that time the situation was desperate for civilians. The city had been heavily bombed. Heat and charcoal were lacking, and food was particularly scarce. Later, when the Marshall Plan came into effect, things gradually improved, but it took time. There have even been food riots. Vienna had been one of the cultural centers of Europe, a place where, on summer evenings, ordinary citizens would go out on the sidewalks with instruments and play classical music for their own enjoyment. A man whose father took part in such impromptu concerts (the family being Jewish fled to America just before the Nazis), remembered that he was crying at the thought of this wasted time.

Graham Greene has one of the characters in “The Third Man” who describes Vienna very different from the late 1940s this way:

“I never knew Vienna between the wars, and I’m too young to remember old Vienna with its Strauss music and easy false charm; for me, it is simply a city of unworthy ruins that has transformed this month of February into great glaciers of snow and ice. The Danube was a gray, flat and muddy river, in the distance through the Russian area, where the Prater lay crushed and desolate and full of grasses, only the Ferris Wheel slowly spinning on the foundations of the rides like abandoned grindstones, iron rusty broken tanks that no one had cleared. Frosted weeds where the snow was thin.

On December 22, 1947, Florence Gearhart, now Florence Grim, received a Christmas card from her son saying he was fine. She showed it to her neighbors. The first she learned of her death the next day was through the newspaper and a radio report, and she immediately left for a sister’s house in New Jersey.

The meeting that claimed Sam Gearhart’s life took place around midnight on December 19, 1947, at the Lugeck Hotel. The hotel, a white neo-baroque building, was restored in 1897 from an early Renaissance structure. Today, with a modern interior, it remains a hotel. The word Lugeck has its root in the German word “auslugen” or “peek” for the hotel’s round twin towers which provide excellent coverage for looking around the corner without being seen.

Here is the story given in the Morning Call of December 23, 1947:

“Her attacker has been identified as a Russian, Stephen Ingrin, 23, and a newspaper correspondent. Gearhart wore civilian clothes and was with a young woman. According to the Russian, an argument started in front of the hotel where Gearhart was hanging out with an Austrian girl. Passing through in civilian clothes, Ingrin said she heard the American say “Russ”. Apparently viewing this as an insult, Ingrin approached the couple to speak to Gearhart about the remark and said he had been punched. They entered the hotel lobby, Ingrin said, and thinking Gearhart was about to hit him again, he first hit him and knocked him down. The Russian admitted to kicking the fallen Gearhart twice. Investigators said there were several heel marks on the US soldier’s face. Other witnesses, however, said Gearhart was standing inside the hotel and Ingrin approached and asked for his nationality. When Gearhart replied that he was American, according to these witnesses, the Russian knocked him down and kicked him on the body and head until he became unresponsive.

Two other American soldiers, William Lane and William Clark, arrived just after Gearhart lost consciousness. Lane saw Ingrin trying to leave the hotel and grabbed him. Clark was hunched over Gearhart’s recumbent body when Ingrin broke away from Lane and attacked Clark, biting him on the arm several times, leaving tooth marks. At this point, the international police patrol arrived and arrested Ingrin.

Gearhart was never able to tell his side of the story. He died without regaining consciousness. Eventually, his body was brought back to Allentown and placed in Grandview Cemetery.

The next day, the US Army Marshal’s Office declared Gerhart’s death “a blatant case of murder.” There was no doubt, he said, that he would advise the Russians to try him on this charge. He then had Ingrin handed over to the Soviet authorities. And with that, what might be called a small-scale “iron curtain” fell into history. The following March, Lehigh County Congressman Franklin Lichtenwalner, at the request of a group of Allentown citizens, delivered a speech to the House of Representatives outlining the details of Gearhart’s death and demanding to find out why nothing had not been done. The State Department, after numerous phone calls, told Lichtenwalner that this was the War Department’s problem.

But at that time, the Cold War was in full swing with the Berlin Airlift. As for what happened to Ingrin, at least nothing that is easily accessible can be found. Perhaps he received the Order of Lenin or he was quickly handed over to a firing squad for execution. Stranger things had happened in Stalin’s Russia. As its sovereign would have remarked, “a death is a tragedy, a million a statistic”. Perhaps Ingrin’s fate runs deep in Soviet records, but the current leader of Russia, President Vladimir Putin, a former KGB agent, probably wouldn’t make it easy to find. Since he was 23 in 1947, Ingrin would be 97 today, plenty of time to reflect on that day.


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Teaching the Cold War through Songs and Music https://triadntr.net/teaching-the-cold-war-through-songs-and-music/ Fri, 10 Sep 2021 04:07:30 +0000 https://triadntr.net/teaching-the-cold-war-through-songs-and-music/ I have published articles on the Cold War as a subject for writing and especially teaching – this is, after all, a very popular course in colleges around the world. I have talked about the use of films in such contexts, and today I am going to discuss how songs and music could be deployed. […]]]>

I have published articles on the Cold War as a subject for writing and especially teaching – this is, after all, a very popular course in colleges around the world. I have talked about the use of films in such contexts, and today I am going to discuss how songs and music could be deployed. Whenever I teach on a subject, especially very modern eras, I always find the music of the era very useful in conveying the vibe and ideas of the era, and the Cold War was no exception. .

There is significant literature on the uses of music during the Cold War, particularly how both sides used soft power. The Soviets sent classical music and ballet to impress other nations, the United States achieved huge victories via jazz and Louis Armstrong. Here, however, I will use more mainstream, folk, pop, and rock songs, and suggest how they can be used in teaching.

Here is an example. In the 1930s and 1940s, the Communist Party was very present in the United States, with a significant presence in popular culture of all kinds: Communism was definitely cool, in film, writing, and music. This applied to the very strong boom in folk music of those years, which produced such famous names as Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger and the Almanac Singers, who later became the Weavers. For the Almanac Singers, think of pro-union songs like “Which Side Are You On”. If you talk about American Communism and why it sparked such fierce hostility and investigation in the 1950s, music actually provides a valuable tool for understanding. In 1940 and 1941, the Almanac Singers produced powerful and very popular songs, which were vigorous denunciations of war, military intervention, and any attempt to support Britain against Germany. This included bitter attacks on Franklin Roosevelt for boosting US military readiness in 1940 (!). Anti-war songs like Plow Under are just plain wild.

You can certainly respect staunch pacifists who reject all wars and violence, even in self-defense, or against horrific regimes like the Nazis, even if you don’t agree with these demanding pacifist principles. But something strange happened to the Almanac Singers in late 1941, when all of their songs suddenly turned super-patriotic and militaristic, as they demanded immediate US intervention in the war. Check out classics like The Sinking of the Reuben James by Woody Guthrie.

I had fun in the classes playing the songs and asking the students to figure out what happened to make such a change, and they quickly understood. In June 1941, the Germans invaded Soviet Russia, and the overt pacifism of the American Communists and their front groups literally evaporated within hours. And these various musical groups appear, very clearly, as 100% subsidiaries of the Soviets, totally devoted to their interests and their foreign policy. It is not surprising that later investigators paid very close attention to people’s attitudes before and after this turning point in June 1941, as a great way to detect serious pro-Soviet loyalties.

Nuclear history also offers wonderful opportunities in popular music. If you want to illustrate the changing attitudes towards nuclear weapons, you can amaze and shock a class by playing Wanda Jackson’s 1957 Fujiyama Mama, in which she proclaims her female sexual power:

I went to Nagasaki, Hiroshima too!
The things that I did to them baby, I can do them to you!

Surprisingly, the song was a huge hit in Japan, where it became a powerful weapon in gender politics.

When in 1968 the Beatles sang Return to the USSR, what was their intention? Is this a parody of the Soviet evil empire? Or are they seriously trying to make a friendly gesture to the Soviets in a way that makes a lot of sense to left-wing Britons like them, while making fun of the pretensions of American culture? It can spark good discussions.

The protest songs of the time are almost too rich to discuss, but an almost perfect element is Barry McGuire’s Eve of Destruction (1965). Strikingly and controversially for the time, this underscored not only the looming dangers of nuclear destruction, but the fact that both sides, East and West, had their flaws, evils, and injustices. Yes, Red China is filled with hate, but you were honestly watching segregationist Alabama? If you can’t get a whole class of these lyrics, something’s seriously wrong. The same goes for Phil Ochs’ protest songs around this time. Take Ochs’ song, The War is Over, one of the most radical and conflicting anti-war songs of the time, and focus on this line: “Right before the end, even betrayal could be worth the worth trying / this country is too young to die. “Now there is a topic of discussion, especially when setting aside the real betrayal of various Cold War spies and defectors. So in a world who seems to be rushing towards nuclear war, is the betrayal justified?

Anti-nuclear themes were prominent in such plays. Before turning their attention to the Vietnamese conflict, protest singers in the English-speaking world focused on the nuclear threat. To take one example among hundreds, in 1962, Bob Dylan denounced the Masters of war, and another song warned that A heavy rain will fall. Barry McGuire himself warned that “if the button is pressed there is no escape / There will be no one to save with the world in a grave.” There is actually an interesting religious angle here. These songs were highly apocalyptic, and McGuire and Dylan became born again Christians. There is a transition from the nuclear preoccupations of the 1960s, as expressed in popular culture, and the born again movement of the following decade, and songs like this illustrate it very well.

In 1973, I met McGuire while he was touring England, performing his last songs, which were strongly evangelical and evangelical, and actually very End Times oriented. I begged him to play Eve of Destruction, which he refused, claiming he forgot the lyrics. I helped him by reciting the entire first verse and starting the second, before he stopped me and laughingly confessed his defeat. He sang it. Yes, I’m dropping names, slightly, but the point is important: these songs were very, very, memorable, and did a great deal to condition attitudes towards respective evils on both sides in the global confrontation. And yes, I still know all the words.

One problem with anti-nuclear songs is that they became so abundant, and quite with the neo-cold war of the 1980s. You can find several lists online of the best songs of this genre, and this abundance is an important point in itself to illustrate attitudes. (Feel free to follow the links in this sentence). The 80s have us 99 red balloons, and XTC Living through another Cuba reads like a cold war curriculum. (“It’s still 1961 and we’re piggy in the middle”). Hmm, stop me before I sing any more.

You don’t want to overwhelm a class with these songs, although they illustrate the extent of Liberal and left-wing hostility to the robust military policies associated with Ronald Reagan. And this was doubly true in Britain and Europe. For example, you can use Morrissey’s Everyday Is Like Sunday (1987: “Come, Armageddon! Come!”). The great Dutch hit song of 1982 was “De Bom” (The Bomb), a declaration of futility in the face of impending destruction.

If I had to pick just one track, it would be from Pink Floyd’s still much underrated album The Final Cut (1983). The best track for lessons might be Two Suns in the Sunset, in which a man drives east, gazing at the reflection of the setting sun behind him, when a new sun appears in front of him – a nuclear fireball. “Perhaps, the human race is over. In his final moments, he realizes that

Ashes and diamonds

Enemy and friend

We were all equal in the end

The album also offers a direct and practical final solution to the nuclear threat, in the title Fletcher Memorial House. It envisions bringing together the world’s political leaders and militarists, all tyrants and kings, with laudable objectivity – Reagan and Brezhnev, Thatcher and Begin – and killing them all as humanely and swiftly as possible. Of course, Roger Waters didn’t mean that this bloodthirsty fix had to be taken seriously (Oh yes, he did).

Not all of these political songs were limited to nuclear threats and the Armageddon language, either. Other Cold War issues also surfaced easily and often. Witness to several songs on the 1980 Clash album, Sandinista!

Note that I do not touch the very parodied of Billy Joel We didn’t light the fire (1989), which for many years has been a boon to high school history teachers across the country.

Like I said, there are a lot of opportunities here. I would have liked to know more about the Soviet side and the Eastern Bloc of this musical war. Suggestions?

Wikipedia has a long and popular list of songs on the Cold War.


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The Truth Behind Life on Top Secret Cold War Submarines Against the Russians https://triadntr.net/the-truth-behind-life-on-top-secret-cold-war-submarines-against-the-russians/ Thu, 09 Sep 2021 17:10:03 +0000 https://triadntr.net/the-truth-behind-life-on-top-secret-cold-war-submarines-against-the-russians/ The sight of actress Suranne Jones swinging on a wire above a mighty submarine in the TV series Vigil might have capsized your stomach. But it doesn’t have anything about what really happens in a classified world where there are only two types of ships: submarines and targets. As a journalist specializing in submarine warfare, […]]]>

The sight of actress Suranne Jones swinging on a wire above a mighty submarine in the TV series Vigil might have capsized your stomach.

But it doesn’t have anything about what really happens in a classified world where there are only two types of ships: submarines and targets.

As a journalist specializing in submarine warfare, I joined six Royal Navy submarines at sea, including a nuclear deterrent boat like the one on which Vigil is installed.

I also acquired a plethora of stories from the depths – and once I held onto HMS Talent by one arm.

Our ships are waging a top secret cold war against the Russians.

Could you work on a submarine? Join the discussion in the comments section








Ali Kefford in the “bomb store” aboard HMS Triumph
(

Picture:

Tony Spencer)



Around the world, in recent years, the Silent Service has landed special forces in enemy territory, launched missile raids, and sneaked offshore to gather intelligence.

Patrols by specially equipped “sneaky” boats crept dangerously close to the Russian mainland in the Barents Sea.

Another spent weeks under the ice in northern Siberia, then sailed to India, lagging behind the Russians in shallow water. This has been going on for decades.

When HMS Dreadnought became the first British submarine to surface through Arctic ice in 1971, the crew were keen to let the Admiralty know.








Suranne Jones in Vigil
(

Picture:

BBC / World Productions)



However, when they tried to establish radio contact, they ended up talking to a Canadian taxi company instead.

Retired Captain David Heley said: “I was aboard HMS Turbulent when HMS Superb and an American submarine spent two months under the ice cap training to pull themselves out. dummy torpedoes.

“We then all got together at the North Pole and I think it was the first time that three boats surfaced there.” Not all patrols are so successful. In May 1981, the Soviet Delta-class submarine K-211 and the British hunter-killer HMS Scepter collided in the Barents Sea.

Both were badly damaged though, when Scepter limped back into Devonport it was casually attributed to a skirmish with a glacier. She was lucky not to have been sunk.








Reality – aboard HMS Turbulent in 1988, in the control room
(

Picture:

Daily check-in)



At sea, sailors live Groundhog Day with endless watches, high carbohydrate meals and sleep, with a few still warm bunkers. To liven up a harsh, stinky and sometimes boring existence, submarines are fertile ground for elaborate pranks.

While on patrol of HMS Tireless, the entire ship’s company persuaded the Weapons Engineer that walking within a yard of any computer had caused him to crash. He was reduced to sneaking temporarily into the control room.

Crews also become obsessed with food if a patrol is extended.

When HMS Valiant returned from her war patrol in the Falklands, all that was left in her cavernous freezer was one lean chicken.








Captain David Tall on periscope aboard HMS Turbulent in 1988
(

Picture:

Daily check-in)



It was a much better result than his previous visit to the South Atlantic when the toilet paper was so low every man was given a roll and said to make it last somehow.

As the situation got worse, they ended up eating canned tallow steak and kidney pies for 15 days at a trot. Some have never eaten the dish since.

An infusion is as crucial as hydraulic oil for the proper functioning of a boat.

In times of shortage, the crew is reduced to keeping their daily tea bag tightly in their top pocket and mashing it repeatedly in boiling water.








The submarine dives into the hit show
(

Picture:

BBC / World Productions)



Entertainment is vital and the boats sail with DVDs, books and music.

Ironically, given the difficult relationship between East and West, HMS Torbay’s favorite group was once the Russian girl group Serebro.

On a war deployment, hunter-killer crews love to sew a Jolly Roger to fly over the aileron as they return to their home base, breaking the rules.

Usually made from a tablecloth cut from the officers’ quarters, it is dyed black before white emblems are sewn to represent their achievements. Each sailor adds one point.








Lieutenant Commander Ian Molyneux, an officer in the Royal Navy, was killed
(

Picture:

PENNSYLVANIA)



A dagger signals a covert operation such as the landing of the SBS or spies, a diving helmet shows that the boat has passed below its official depth limit, and a sheep’s head is used when the boat has rammed another vessel . As always, the sea is a ruthless mistress and the unexpected can and will happen.

When submarines dive deep, bulkheads can warp so that cabin doors cannot be opened or closed.

HMS Turbulent already had to descend to a shallow depth to free the squadron captain who was stuck in the lavatory.

Former First Sea Lord Sir Mark Stanhope nearly drowned as a young guard on the deck of HMS Swiftsure on the surface in 1977 when he was hit by a huge wave.





The murder of Lt Cdr Ian Molyneux ten years ago by another sailor while HMS Astute was in Southampton devastated an entire service known for its close loyalty.

Last Monday, his widow, Gill, attended the dedication ceremony for a sculpture at the National Memorial Arboretum to be dedicated next spring by the submarine commander-in-chief Prince William.

It will commemorate Ian and the 5,348 other submariners who perished in the service of their country, most of whom have no official graves. Colin Firth, who played Commodore David Russell in the movie Kursk: The Last Mission, has actively supported the fundraising efforts of the Submariner Memorial Appeal.

He said: “Even in peacetime, submarines in a hostile environment operate under conditions where it only takes a small mistake for disaster to occur.

“This, combined with long periods of separation and a complete lack of communication with loved ones, makes life for those on board and their partners and children particularly difficult at home. “




Sub Commodore Irvine Lindsay’s Assistant Captain added, “No one is ambivalent about serving on a submarine.

Every time we go to sea we don’t exercise, we don’t pretend
be under water propelled by a nuclear reactor.

“That’s why we need this advantage. We look a little scruffy, there’s a swagger that’s probably irritating, and we’re bad to walk, but we’re going to sink a ship for you.

What is Vigil wrong

Vigil is a brilliant, compelling drama, and I’m addicted like a halibut. But it looks as much like real submarine service as it does the RAF.

All deckhands and officers are cranky and the chain of command dysfunctional, when in reality boats must operate with humanity and humor to maintain morale and submariners’ captains are generally intelligent, cunning and charming, with reflections of steel.

By far, the worst inaccuracy in Vigil occurs when DCI Silva performs a helicopter flight to the submarine alone with a young master.








DCI Silva performs a helicopter flight to the submarine
(

Picture:

BBC / World Productions)



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When she tries to strike up a conversation with him, the response is freezing. The reverse would be true. Submariners love the rumor that they “go further and stay longer”.

Almost all of them, with a long patrol ahead of them, would take the opportunity to chat with her. As one said, “Literally the last interesting thing that’s going to happen to him for months and he’s shutting it down.” Unthinkable.”

Vigil’s other technical blunders include:

  • Nuclear deterrence has not been within 15 minutes of notice of nuclear weapons launch since 1998. The current notice of firing is several days.
  • A civilian detective would not conduct the first investigation into the death of a serviceman. The work would fall to the Special Investigations Division of the Ministry of Defense Police.
  • DCI Silva is transported to HMS Vigil in an out of service yellow search and rescue helicopter. It would have been a gray military helicopter.
  • The admiral cap badge is incorrect, like most other badges.
  • There is no “low oxygen” environment to “slow down fires”.
  • The actors left the rear door of the torpedo tube open while examining the body. This would be extremely dangerous and risk keeping the boat watertight.
  • No submarine captain would describe us as being at war and at war since 1968.
  • The control room and sonar team would not be silent in coastal waters. It would be buzzing.


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